The Haskell ecosystem has numerous libraries for effectful stream programming, including, but not limited to:

`List`

`conduit`

`enumerator`

`io-streams`

`iterIO`

`iteratee`

`list-t`

`logict`

`machines`

`pipes`

Unfortunately, this poses a problem for library writers. Which streaming library should they pick when providing effectful streaming components?

Sometimes the correct answer is: none of the above! We can often build streaming and effectful generators using only the `base`

and `transformers`

libraries!

The trick is to build polymorphic generators using only the `MonadPlus`

and `MonadTrans`

type classes. These generators can then be consumed by any library that provides an implementation of `ListT`

that implements `MonadPlus`

and `MonadTrans`

.

`MonadPlus`

I like to think of `MonadPlus`

as the "list building" type class. This is because you can assemble a list using `return`

, `mzero`

, and `mplus`

:

```
>>> import Control.Monad (MonadPlus(..))
>>> mzero :: [Int]
[]
>>> return 1 :: [Int]
[1]
>>> return 1 `mplus` return 2 :: [Int] -- [1] ++ [2]
[1, 2]
```

In other words, `mzero`

is analogous to `[]`

, `mplus`

is analogous to `(++)`

, and `return`

builds a singleton list.

However, many things other than lists implement `MonadPlus`

, including every implementation of `ListT`

in the wild. Therefore, if we build collections using `MonadPlus`

operations these collections will type-check as `ListT`

streams as well.

Let's provide the following helper function to convert a list to this more general `MonadPlus`

type:

```
select :: MonadPlus m => [a] -> m a
select [] = mzero
select (x:xs) = return x `mplus` select xs
-- or: select = foldr (\x m -> return x `mplus` m) mzero
```

Note that this `select`

function has some nice mathematical properties:

```
select (xs `mplus` ys) = (select xs) `mplus` (select ys)
select mzero = mzero
-- This assumes the distributivity law for `MonadPlus`
select . (f >=> g) = (select . f) >=> (select . g)
select . return = return
```

`MonadTrans`

Using `select`

and `liftIO`

(from `MonadIO`

), we can build list comprehensions that interleave effects, like this:

```
example :: (MonadIO m, MonadPlus m) => m ()
example = do
x <- select [1, 2, 3]
liftIO (putStrLn ("x = " ++ show x))
y <- select [4, 5, 6]
liftIO (putStrLn ("y = " ++ show y))
```

You can read the above code as saying:

- Let
`x`

range from`1`

to`3`

- Print
`x`

every time it selects a new value - For each value of
`x`

, let`y`

range from`4`

to`6`

- Print
`y`

every time it selects a new value

Notice how `example`

doesn't depend on any particular streaming library, so we can run it with diverse `ListT`

implementations, all of which implement `MonadPlus`

and `MonadIO`

:

```
>>> Pipes.runListT example -- This requires `pipes-4.1.4`
x = 1
y = 4
y = 5
y = 6
x = 2
y = 4
y = 5
y = 6
x = 3
y = 4
y = 5
y = 6
>>> _ <- Control.Monad.Logic.observeAllT example
<Exact same output>
>>> _ <- ListT.toList example
<Exact same output>
```

However, we can use this trick for more than just list comprehensions. We can build arbitrary lazy and effectful streams this way!

#### Generators

Here's an example of a generator that lazily emits lines read from standard input:

```
import Control.Monad (MonadPlus(..))
import Control.Monad.Trans.Class (MonadTrans(..))
import System.IO (isEOF)
stdinLn :: (MonadIO m, MonadPlus m) => m String
stdinLn = do
eof <- liftIO isEOF
if eof
then mzero
else liftIO getLine `mplus` stdinLn
```

You can read the above code as saying:

- Check if we are at the end of the file
- If we're done, then return an empty list
- If we're not done, prepend a
`getLine`

onto a recursive call to`stdinLn`

We can prove this works by writing a program that forwards these lines to standard output:

```
echo :: (MonadIO m, MonadPlus m) => m ()
echo = do
str <- stdinLn
liftIO (putStrLn str)
```

Now we can run `echo`

using any of our favorite `ListT`

implementations and it will do the right thing, streaming lines lazily from standard input to standard output in constant space:

```
>>> Pipes.runListT echo
Test<Enter>
Test
ABC<Enter>
ABC
42<Enter>
42
<Ctrl-D>
>>>
```

The exception is the `transformers`

library, whose `ListT`

implementation does not stream or run in constant space.

#### Combinators

We can also implement lazy variations on `Control.Monad`

combinators using this interface.

For example, we can implement a lazy variation on `replicateM`

using just `select`

and `replicate`

:

```
replicateM' :: MonadPlus m => Int -> m a -> m a
replicateM' n m = do
m' <- select (replicate n m)
m'
-- or: replicateM' n = join . select . replicate n
```

We can use this lazy `replicateM'`

to lazily echo 10 lines from standard input to standard output:

```
example :: (MonadIO m, MonadPlus m) => m ()
example = do
str <- replicateM' 10 (lift getLine)
liftIO (putStrLn str)
```

We can also implement a lazy `mapM`

and `forM`

, too, except now their implementations are so trivial that they don't even deserve their own functions:

```
mapM' :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b
mapM' = (=<<)
forM' :: MOnad m => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m a
forM' = (>>=)
example :: (MonadIO m, MonadPlus m) => m ()
example = mapM' (liftIO . print) (replicateM' 10 (liftIO getLine))
```

Similarly, a lazy `sequence`

just becomes `join`

.

#### Conclusion

The following streaming libraries already provide their own implementation of `ListT`

compatible with the above trick:

`List`

`list-t`

`LogicT`

`pipes`

The other streaming libraries do not currently provide a `ListT`

implementation, but there is no reason why they couldn't! For example, `conduit`

could implement an internal `ListT`

type of its own and use that as an intermediate type for converting the above abstraction to the public `Source`

type:

```
convert :: Monad m
=> Data.Conduit.Internal.ListT m a -> Source m a
```

This polymorphic API obviously does not capture all possible streaming patterns. For example, you can not implement something like `take`

using this API. However, I suspect that a significant number of streaming components can be written using this dependency-free interface.

Edit: Thank you to Twan van Laarhoven, who pointed out that you can sometimes use `MonadIO`

instead of `MonadTrans`

, which produces nicer constraints. I updated this article to incorporate his suggestion.